Z-Wave shouldn’t be lifeless – Dwelling Assistant

Artwork by Clelia Rella

TL;DR: Z-Wave is alive and properly, partly because of a powerful neighborhood that’s constructing new open-source sources. To thrive properly into the longer term, it should take additional steps to open its expertise.

Final week, Dominic, Uwe, and I (Paulus) attended the Z-Wave Alliance member assembly in Austin, Texas. It was the primary assembly since we turned a member and we got here with a mission: inform Alliance members in regards to the work carried out by the open-source neighborhood for Z-Wave and discover new avenues for collaboration.

Three of us attended, every representing totally different aspects of Z-Wave throughout the Open Dwelling Basis: Dominic is the founder and maintainer of Z-Wave JS, which powers the Z-Wave integration in Dwelling Assistant. Uwe leads the event of the Dwelling Assistant Z-Wave stick that we’re engaged on, and I used to be there to allow collaborations with different Z-Wave members. Massive due to Home Assistant Cloud subscribers – due to you we are able to do that work full-time at Nabu Casa.

A little background on Z-Wave

To use Z-Wave in Home Assistant, our users buy a Z-Wave certified USB stick and combine it with Z-Wave certified devices. Home Assistant then connects to the stick using Z-Wave JS, developed by Dominic, and we’re off to the races. Z-Wave JS was developed completely outside of the Z-Wave Alliance, and is based on the published version of the Z-Wave specification.

Z-Wave wasn’t always this open – Z-Wave used to be owned by a single company, which was later acquired by Silicon Labs. SiLabs decided it was time for change and turned the Z-Wave Alliance into a Standards Development Organization (SDO) that is controlled by its members and a standard that is open.

As it stands, there are still parts of Z-Wave that are not open yet, including the firmware that is running on Z-Wave sticks. I might have mentioned a couple of times, including in my keynote, that we should open up more. It is a good thing to let everyone help fix bugs, improve code quality, and improve diagnostics.

Opening Keynote

One of the conditions that we negotiated when joining the Z-Wave Alliance was that we would be allowed to give an opening keynote to explain the work we have been doing. For the last 8 years, Home Assistant has been doing its own thing with Z-Wave. We have contact with manufacturers of Z-Wave devices via our partner program, however by no means established an official relationship with the Alliance. We determined that it was time to vary that.

We launched the Open Home Foundation final month, a nonprofit that fights for privateness, selection, and sustainability within the sensible house – and anybody who lives in a single. Open sensible house requirements like Z-Wave are an vital constructing block for this. With Z-Wave, your information stays at house as communication is absolutely native. It’s an ordinary meant to supply customers selection, and with no reliance on the cloud, gadgets can proceed to work lengthy after a producer ends assist, or frankly doesn’t care anymore.

If you happen to comply with tech information, you is perhaps questioning now: What about Matter? With the OHF, we consider in selection, together with at the usual degree. Every commonplace is constructed on prime of various applied sciences, and every has execs and cons. Z-Wave is nice as a result of it really works with out Wi-Fi, and its sub-GHz frequency is much less busy, permitting it to journey additional.

Paulus Schoutsen presenting

In my keynote to the Alliance, I launched the work we’ve been doing with Dwelling Assistant, Z-Wave JS, and the Open Dwelling Basis. In line with our opt-in analytics, 9.7% of our customers use Z-Wave. This additionally implies that 90.3% of installations are one Z-Wave stick away from with the ability to use Z-Wave. Z-Wave JS has opt-in statistics, which present on common there are 17 Z-Wave gadgets per community. Math time:

1 million lively Dwelling Assistant installations
9.7% utilizing Z-Wave
17 Z-Wave gadgets
1.7 million Z-Wave gadgets in use

On the subject of sensible house requirements, all large sensible house platforms are all-in on Matter and have skipped or forgotten about Z-Wave – aside from Dwelling Assistant. Now we have at all times featured Z-Wave in our checklist of integrations and are large promoters of the usual.

That is the place I launched our aim for Z-Wave to the Alliance: we would like Z-Wave to be a profitable consumer-facing model. Z-Wave could be very standard amongst corporations within the US making safety merchandise (like Ring). Nevertheless, the buyer doesn’t know they’re utilizing Z-Wave as a result of it’s an implementation element. This holds Z-Wave again from changing into a wealthy ecosystem.

For us, success implies that there are various producers making Z-Wave gadgets and that customers have an abundance of selection in every product class.

Z-Wave JS is an unbiased driver created from the bottom up primarily based on the revealed Z-Wave specification. Dominic has put quite a lot of effort into this, and his work has fashioned a neighborhood of individuals keen about creating the perfect open Z-Wave driver. Our neighborhood has many energy customers who take a look at Z-Wave JS and ensure it scales and works with each previous and new gadgets.

We’re engaged on getting Z-Wave JS licensed to get corporations to think about adopting it. Excellent news on that entrance – there may be already one firm that has dropped their 20-year-old Z-Wave stack in favor of Z-Wave JS. Let’s get extra on board!

Our efforts to make Z-Wave a hit transcend making an open supply Z-Wave driver and sensible house platform. We additionally created the Z-Wave JS Firmware Replace service to supply updates for Z-Wave gadgets. For this service we’re at the moment working with 8 totally different producers to supply firmware for 187 gadgets. In my keynote I advised the viewers that we wish to assist extra producers present updates to their customers.

The businesses that contribute their firmware to the Z-Wave JS Firmware Replace service.

In the long run, I wrapped up my discuss pushing the Alliance to open up extra: all of us need Z-Wave to succeed. Whether it is extra open, it is going to be simpler for customers to undertake. It will result in extra tooling, extra apps, extra every thing. That may, in return, result in an even bigger Z-Wave ecosystem the place we are able to all thrive. Some will do it for gross sales, or in our case, to drive ahead merchandise that worth privateness, selection, and sustainability.

We’re all on this Alliance to have our gadgets work collectively. Let’s not compete on who can greatest management a Z-Wave mild bulb.


Range testing our Z-Wave stick prototype

One of our team’s first stops at the Z-Wave Summit was attending DrZWave’s vary take a look at down on the Colorado River. This was an ideal alternative to see how properly the prototype of our Z-Wave stick performs. Whereas others examined with big antennas on each side to succeed in the longest vary attainable, we intentionally selected end devices with tiny antennas to recreate a extra real-world state of affairs. In spite of everything, many gadgets out within the wild don’t have room for giant exterior antennas, and we wish to have the absolute best expertise for our customers with present networks. Additionally, we examined each basic Z-Wave and Z-Wave Lengthy Vary as a result of a majority of present gadgets nonetheless use basic Z-Wave.

Bikes and scooters weren’t allowed on the bridges and close to the water, so Uwe received some train that day, strolling a number of miles up and down the river with the tip gadgets in his pockets. Dominic carried out the vary take a look at utilizing Z-Wave JS UI and a easy script that despatched on/off instructions to the tip gadgets to make them blink. On account of encryption, even a single corrupted bit could be noticeable by an interruption of the blinking sample and lacking responses from the tip gadget.

It’s barely seen within the photograph, however we reached the bridge behind the bridge all the best way within the background. We used basic Z-Wave and Z-Wave Lengthy Vary, though basic Z-Wave was not as dependable at that distance. That could be a 0.7-mile (1.13-km) line of sight! With a greater antenna on the opposite aspect or utilizing EU frequencies (which permit increased transmit energy), even additional ranges are undoubtedly attainable.

Left: Dominic, barely jetlagged, with our stick prototype (inexperienced). Proper: DrZWave with the controller reference design (purple). Background: Uwe, 0.7 miles away.

Unplug fest

Afterward, everybody headed inside for the unplug fest, the place producers of finish gadgets and controllers/gateways might join and take a look at how properly they work together with one another. Right here’s an instance of a HomeSeer prototype that already has nice assist in Z-Wave JS:

Since there was nonetheless a while left, we took the possibility to carry out extra vary exams with our prototype and the reference design, this time indoors going up by means of a number of layers of concrete. Relying on the tip gadget, we had been capable of bridge between 2 and eight flooring.


Apart from powering the Z-Wave integration in Dwelling Assistant, Z-Wave JS is a good device for growth. Constructed with diagnostics in thoughts, Z-Wave JS helps perceive what the controller and gadgets are doing and whether or not they’re behaving as anticipated.

Though we got down to inform folks about Z-Wave JS, we discovered that quite a lot of engineers from established corporations already use it for growth – and of their displays!

They use it to breed points, do load testing, write scripts to automate sure duties, and run their very own take a look at suites. This contains utilizing the CLI instruments to replace firmware, for instance, to analyze adjustments between totally different Z-Wave SDK variations. The Javascript API makes it trivial to carry out arbitrary actions and automate issues which are exhausting or unattainable to do utilizing UI-based purposes.

One other useful growth device is the Zniffer, a particular Z-Wave controller that may seize and decode all Z-Wave radio site visitors. Like many of the present tooling, this requires utilizing Home windows. Previous to the summit, Dominic had began engaged on including assist for Zniffer gadgets to Z-Wave JS. Though this was nonetheless a piece in progress, folks had been already utilizing it for growth functions and advised us they had been trying ahead to it being formally launched.


Z-Wave is a strong expertise with a big set up base, and in sure use circumstances, it supplies actual benefits over different connectivity requirements. Assembly Alliance members, I can see they’re enthusiastic in regards to the future, nevertheless it’s the neighborhood that may drive the subsequent chapter of Z-Wave. Additional opening Z-Wave will empower each the distributors and the neighborhood – and assist construct an open house that serves everybody in it, offering better privateness, selection, and sustainability.