An Iron Hammer within the Cloud – Krebs on Safety

The homepage of Stark Industries Options.

Two weeks earlier than Russia invaded Ukraine in February 2022, a big, mysterious new Web internet hosting agency referred to as Stark Industries Options materialized and shortly grew to become the epicenter of large distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults on authorities and industrial targets in Ukraine and Europe. An investigation into Stark Industries reveals it’s getting used as a world proxy community that conceals the true supply of cyberattacks and disinformation campaigns in opposition to enemies of Russia.

Not less than a dozen patriotic Russian hacking teams have been launching DDoS assaults for the reason that begin of the struggle at quite a lot of targets seen versus Moscow. However by all accounts, few assaults from these gangs have come near the quantity of firepower wielded by a pro-Russia group calling itself “NoName057(16).”

This graphic comes from a latest report from NETSCOUT about DDoS assaults from Russian hacktivist teams.

As detailed by researchers at Radware, NoName has successfully gamified DDoS assaults, recruiting hacktivists by way of its Telegram channel and providing to pay individuals who agree to put in a chunk of software program referred to as DDoSia. That program permits NoName to commandeer the host computer systems and their Web connections in coordinated DDoS campaigns, and DDoSia customers with probably the most assaults can win money prizes.

The NoName DDoS group promoting on Telegram. Picture:

A report from the safety agency Group Cymru discovered the DDoS assault infrastructure utilized in NoName campaigns is assigned to 2 interlinked internet hosting suppliers: MIRhosting and Stark Industries. MIRhosting is a internet hosting supplier based in The Netherlands in 2004. However Stark Industries Solutions Ltd was integrated on February 10, 2022, simply two weeks earlier than the Russian invasion of Ukraine.


Safety consultants say that not lengthy after the struggle began, Stark started internet hosting dozens of proxy providers and free digital personal networking (VPN) providers, that are designed to assist customers protect their Web utilization and placement from prying eyes.

Proxy suppliers enable customers to route their Web and Net looking visitors by means of another person’s pc. From a web site’s perspective, the visitors from a proxy community consumer seems to originate from the rented IP deal with, not from the proxy service buyer.

These providers can be utilized in a reliable method for a number of enterprise functions — corresponding to value comparisons or gross sales intelligence — however they’re additionally massively abused for hiding cybercrime exercise as a result of they will make it troublesome to hint malicious visitors to its authentic supply.

What’s extra, many proxy providers don’t disclose how they acquire entry to the proxies they’re renting out, and in lots of instances the entry is obtained by means of the dissemination of malicious software program that turns the contaminated system right into a visitors relay — often unbeknownst to the reliable proprietor of the Web connection. Different proxy providers will enable customers to generate profits by renting out their Web connection to anybody. is an organization that tracks VPNs and proxy providers worldwide. Spur finds that Stark Industries (AS44477) at the moment is house to not less than 74 VPN providers, and 40 completely different proxy providers. As we’ll see within the closing part of this story, simply a type of proxy networks has over one million Web addresses  obtainable for lease throughout the globe.

Raymond Dijkxhoorn operates a internet hosting agency in The Netherlands referred to as Prolocation. He additionally co-runs SURBL, an anti-abuse service that flags domains and Web deal with ranges which are strongly related to spam and cybercrime exercise, together with DDoS.

Dijkxhoorn stated final yr SURBL heard from a number of individuals who stated they operated VPN providers whose internet assets had been included in SURBL’s block lists.

“We had folks doing delistings at SURBL for domains that had been suspended by the registrars,” Dijkhoorn informed KrebsOnSecurity. “And not less than two of them defined that Stark provided them free VPN providers that they had been reselling.”

Dijkxhoorn added that Stark Industries additionally sponsored activist teams from Ukraine.

“How helpful would it not be for Russia to know the true IPs from Ukraine’s tech warriors?” he noticed.


Richard Hummel is menace intelligence lead at NETSCOUT. Hummel stated when he considers the worst of all of the internet hosting suppliers on the market right now, Stark Industries is persistently close to or on the high of that record.

“The reason being we’ve had not less than a dozen service suppliers come to us saying, ‘There’s this community on the market inundating us with visitors,’” Hummel stated. “And it wasn’t even DDoS assaults. [The systems] on Stark had been simply scanning these suppliers so quick it was crashing a few of their providers.”

Hummel stated NoName will usually launch their assaults utilizing a mixture of assets rented from main, reliable cloud providers, and people from so-called “bulletproof” internet hosting suppliers like Stark. Bulletproof suppliers are so named after they earn or domesticate a popularity for ignoring any abuse complaints or police studies about exercise on their networks.

Combining bulletproof suppliers with reliable cloud internet hosting, Hummel stated, probably makes NoName’s DDoS campaigns extra resilient as a result of many community operators will hesitate to be too aggressive in blocking Web addresses related to the most important cloud providers.

“What we usually see here’s a distribution of cloud internet hosting suppliers and bulletproof internet hosting suppliers in DDoS assaults,” he stated. “They’re utilizing public cloud internet hosting suppliers as a result of a variety of instances that’s your first layer of community protection, and since [many companies are wary of] over-blocking entry to reliable cloud assets.”

However even when the cloud supplier detects abuse coming from the client, the supplier might be not going to close the client down instantly, Hummel stated.

“There’s often a grace interval, and even when that’s solely an hour or two, you’ll be able to nonetheless launch numerous assaults in that point,” he stated. “After which they simply hold coming again and opening new cloud accounts.”


Stark Industries is integrated at a mail drop deal with in the UK. UK enterprise data record an Ivan Vladimirovich Neculiti as the corporate’s secretary. Mr. Neculiti additionally is called because the CEO and founding father of PQ Internet hosting Plus S.R.L. (aka Good High quality Internet hosting), a Moldovan firm shaped in 2019 that lists the identical UK mail drop deal with as Stark Industries.

Ivan Neculiti, as pictured on LinkedIn.

Reached by way of LinkedIn, Mr. Neculiti stated PQ Internet hosting established Stark Industries as a “white label” of its model in order that “resellers might distribute our providers utilizing our IP addresses and their shoppers wouldn’t have any affairs with PQ Internet hosting.”

“PQ Internet hosting is an organization with over 1,000+ of [our] personal bodily servers in 38 international locations and we’ve got over 100,000 shoppers,” he stated. “Although we aren’t as massive as Hetzner, Amazon and OVH, nonetheless we’re a quick rising firm that gives providers to tens of hundreds of personal clients and authorized entities.”

Requested concerning the fixed stream of DDoS assaults whose origins have traced again to Stark Industries over the previous two years, Neculiti maintained Stark hasn’t obtained any official abuse studies about assaults coming from its networks.

“It was most likely some type of intelligent assault that we didn’t see, I don’t rule out this reality, as a result of we’ve got a really massive variety of shoppers and our Web channels are fairly massive,” he stated. “However, on this scenario, sadly, nobody contacted us to report that there was an assault from our addresses; if somebody had contacted us, we might have positively blocked the community information.” finds Ivan V. Neculiti was the proprietor of struggle[.]md, a web site launched in 2008 that chronicled the historical past of a 1990 armed battle in Moldova generally known as the Transnistria War and the Moldo-Russian struggle.

An advert for, circa 2009.

Transnistria is a breakaway pro-Russian area that declared itself a state in 1990, though it isn’t internationally acknowledged. The copyright on that web site credit the “MercenarieS TeaM,” which was at one time a Moldovan IT agency. Mr. Neculiti confirmed personally registering this area.


The info breach monitoring service Constella Intelligence studies that an Ivan V. Neculiti registered a number of on-line accounts underneath the e-mail deal with [email protected]. Cyber intelligence agency Intel 471 reveals this e-mail deal with is tied to the username “dfyz” on greater than a half-dozen Russian language cybercrime boards since 2008. The consumer dfyz on Searchengines[.]ru in 2008 requested different discussion board members to evaluation, and stated they had been a part of the MercenarieS TeaM.

Again then, dfyz was promoting “bulletproof servers for any objective,” that means the internet hosting firm would willfully ignore abuse complaints or police inquiries concerning the exercise of its clients.

DomainTools studies there are not less than 33 domains registered to [email protected]. A number of of those domains have Ivan Neculiti of their registration data, together with tracker-free[.]cn, which was registered to an Ivan Neculiti at [email protected] and referenced the MercenarieS TeaM in its authentic registration data.

Dfyz additionally used the nickname DonChicho, who likewise offered bulletproof internet hosting providers and entry to hacked Web servers. In 2014, a distinguished member of the Russian language cybercrime group Antichat filed a grievance in opposition to DonChicho, saying this consumer scammed them and had used the e-mail deal with [email protected].

The grievance stated DonChicho registered on Antichat from the Transnistria Web deal with 84.234.55[.]29. Looking out this deal with in Constella reveals it has been used to register simply 5 accounts on-line which have been created over time, together with one at, the place the consumer registered with the e-mail deal with [email protected]. Constella additionally returns for that e-mail deal with a consumer by the title “Ivan” at and

Constella finds that the password most incessantly utilized by the e-mail deal with [email protected] was “filecast,” and that there are greater than 90 e-mail addresses related to this password. Amongst them are roughly two dozen addresses with the title “Neculiti” in them, in addition to the deal with help@donservers[.]ru.

Intel 471 says DonChicho posted to a number of Russian cybercrime boards that help@donservers[.]ru was his deal with, and that he logged into cybercrime boards virtually solely from Web addresses in Tiraspol, the capital of Transnistria. A evaluation of DonChicho’s posts reveals this individual was banned from a number of boards in 2014 for scamming different customers.

Cached copies of DonChicho’s vainness area (donchicho[.]ru) present that in 2009 he was a spammer who peddled knockoff prescribed drugs by way of Rx-Promotion, as soon as one of many largest pharmacy spam moneymaking packages for Russian-speaking associates.

Mr. Neculiti informed KrebsOnSecurity he has by no means used the nickname DonChicho.

“I could guarantee you that I’ve no relation to DonChicho nor to his bulletproof servers,” he stated.

Beneath is a thoughts map that reveals the connections between the accounts talked about above.

A thoughts map tracing the historical past of the consumer Dfyz. Click on to enlarge.

Earlier this yr, NoName started massively hitting authorities and business web sites in Moldova. A new report from Arbor Networks says the assaults started round March 6, when NoName alleged the federal government of Moldova was “longing for Russophobia.”

“Since early March, greater than 50 web sites have been focused, in line with posted ‘proof’ by the teams concerned in attacking the nation,” Arbor’s ASERT Group wrote. “Whereas NoName seemingly initiated the ramp of assaults, a bunch of different DDoS hacktivists have joined the fray in claiming credit score for assaults throughout greater than 15 industries.”


The German unbiased information outlet final week printed a scathing investigative report on Stark Industries and MIRhosting, which notes that Ivan Neculiti operates his internet hosting corporations with the help of his brother, Yuri.

Picture credit score:

The report factors out that Stark Industries continues to host a Russian disinformation information outlet referred to as “Latest Dependable Information” (RRN) that was sanctioned by the European Union in 2023 for spreading hyperlinks to propaganda blogs and faux European media and authorities web sites.

“The web site was not operating on computer systems in Moscow or St. Petersburg till lately, however in the course of the EU, within the Netherlands, on the computer systems of the Neculiti brothers,” Correctiv reporters wrote.

“After a request from this editorial staff, a well known service was put in that hides the precise internet host,” the report continues. “Ivan Neculiti introduced that he had blocked the related entry and server following inside investigations. “We very a lot remorse that we’re solely now discovering out that one in every of our clients is a sanctioned portal,” stated the corporate boss. Nonetheless, RRN remains to be accessible by way of its servers.”

Correctiv additionally factors to a January 2023 report from the Ukrainian authorities, which discovered servers from Stark Industries Options had been used as a part of a cyber assault on the Ukrainian information company “Ukrinform”. Correctiv notes the infamous hacker group Sandworm — a sophisticated persistent menace (APT) group operated by a cyberwarfare unit of Russia’s navy intelligence service — was identified by Ukrainian government authorities as liable for that assault.


Public data point out MIRhosting relies in The Netherlands and is operated by 37-year previous Andrey Nesterenko, whose personal website says he’s an completed live performance pianist who started performing publicly at a younger age.

DomainTools says mirhosting[.]com is registered to Mr. Nesterenko and to Innovation IT Options Corp, which lists addresses in London and in Nesterenko’s said hometown of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

That is fascinating as a result of in line with the e-book Inside Cyber Warfare by Jeffrey Carr, Innovation IT Options Corp. was liable for internet hosting StopGeorgia[.]ru, a hacktivist web site for organizing cyberattacks in opposition to Georgia that appeared on the identical time Russian forces invaded the former Soviet nation in 2008. That battle was regarded as the primary struggle ever fought wherein a notable cyberattack and an precise navy engagement occurred concurrently.

Responding to questions from KrebsOnSecurity, Mr. Nesterenko stated he couldn’t say whether or not his community had ever hosted the StopGeorgia web site again in 2008 as a result of his firm didn’t hold data going again that far. However he stated Stark Industries Options is certainly one in every of MIRhsoting’s colocation clients.

“Our relationship is solely provider-customer,” Nesterenko stated. “Additionally they make the most of a number of suppliers and information facilities globally, so connecting them on to MIRhosting overlooks their broader community.”

“We take any report of malicious exercise severely and are at all times open to info that may assist us determine and forestall misuse of our infrastructure, whether or not involving Stark Industries or every other buyer,” Nesterenko continued. “In instances the place our providers are exploited for malicious functions, we collaborate totally with Dutch cyber police and different related authorities to analyze and take applicable measures. Nonetheless, we’ve got but to obtain any actionable info past the article itself, which has not offered us with adequate element to determine or block malicious actors.”

In December 2022, safety agency Recorded Future profiled the phishing and credential harvesting infrastructure used for Russia-aligned espionage operations by a gaggle dubbed Blue Charlie (aka TAG-53), which has focused e-mail accounts of nongovernmental organizations and assume tanks, journalists, and authorities and protection officers.

Recorded Future discovered that nearly all of the Blue Charlie domains existed in simply ten completely different ISPs, with a big focus positioned in two networks, one in every of which was MIRhosting. Each Microsoft and the UK government assess that Blue Charlie is linked to the Russian menace exercise teams variously generally known as Callisto Group, COLDRIVER, and SEABORGIUM.

Mr. Nesterenko took exception to a story on that report from The Document, which is owned by Recorded Future.

“We’ve mentioned its contents with our buyer, Stark Industries,” he stated. “We perceive that they’ve initiated authorized proceedings in opposition to the web site in query, as they firmly consider that the claims made are inaccurate.”

Recorded Future stated they up to date their story with feedback from Mr. Neculiti, however that they stand by their reporting.

Mr. Nesterenko’s LinkedIn profile says he was beforehand the overseas area gross sales supervisor at Serverius-as, a internet hosting firm in The Netherlands that is still in the identical information heart as MIRhosting.

In February, the Dutch police took 13 servers offline that had been utilized by the notorious LockBit ransomware group, which had initially bragged on its darknet website that its house base was in The Netherlands. Sources inform KrebsOnSecurity the servers seized by the Dutch police had been positioned in Serverius’ information heart in Dronten, which can be shared by MIRhosting.

Serverius-as didn’t reply to requests for remark. Nesterenko stated MIRhosting does use one in every of Serverius’s information facilities for its operations within the Netherlands, alongside two different information facilities, however that the latest incident involving the seizure of servers has no connection to MIRhosting.

“We’re legally prohibited by Dutch regulation and police laws from sharing info with third events relating to any communications we could have had,” he stated.

A February 2024 report from safety agency ESET found Serverius-as methods had been concerned in a sequence of focused phishing assaults by Russia-aligned teams in opposition to Ukrainian entities all through 2023. ESET noticed that after the spearphishing domains had been now not lively, they had been transformed to selling rogue Web pharmacy web sites.


A evaluation of the Web deal with ranges lately added to the community operated by Stark Industries Options affords some perception into its buyer base, utilization, and perhaps even true origins. Here’s a snapshot (PDF) of all Web deal with ranges introduced by Stark Industries thus far within the month of Could 2024 (this info was graciously collated by the community observability platform

These data point out that the most important portion of the IP area utilized by Stark is in The Netherlands, adopted by Germany and the US. Stark says it’s related to roughly 4,600 Web addresses that at the moment record their possession as Comcast Cable Communications.

A evaluation of these deal with ranges at reveals all of them are related to an entity referred to as Proxyline, which is a sprawling proxy service primarily based in Russia that at the moment says it has greater than 1.6 million proxies globally which are obtainable for lease.

Proxyline dot web.

Reached for remark, Comcast stated the Web deal with ranges by no means did belong to Comcast, so it’s probably that Stark has been fudging the true location of its routing bulletins in some instances.

Stark studies that it has greater than 67,000 Web addresses at Santa Clara, Calif.-based EGIhosting. Spur says the Stark addresses involving EGIhosting all map to Proxyline as nicely. EGIhosting didn’t reply to requests for remark.

EGIhosting manages Web addresses for the Cyprus-based internet hosting agency ITHOSTLINE LTD (aka HOSTLINE-LTD), which is represented all through Stark’s introduced Web ranges. Stark says it has greater than 21,000 Web addresses with HOSTLINE. finds Proxyline addresses are particularly concentrated within the Stark ranges labeled ITHOSTLINE LTD, HOSTLINE-LTD, and Proline IT.

Stark’s community record contains roughly 21,000 Web addresses at Hockessin, De. primarily based DediPath, which abruptly ceased operations without warning in August 2023. In keeping with a phishing report launched final yr by Interisle Consulting, DediPath was the fourth commonest supply of phishing assaults within the yr ending Oct. 2022. likewise finds that nearly the entire Stark address ranges marked “DediPath LLC” are tied to Proxyline.

Picture: Interisle Consulting.

Numerous the Web deal with ranges introduced by Stark in Could originate in India, and the names which are self-assigned to many of those networks point out they had been beforehand used to ship massive volumes of spam for natural medicinal merchandise, with names like HerbalFarm, AdsChrome, Nutravo, Herbzoot and Herbalve.

The anti-spam group SpamHaus reports that most of the Indian IP deal with ranges are related to identified “snowshoe spam,” a type of abuse that includes mass e-mail campaigns unfold throughout a number of domains and IP addresses to weaken popularity metrics and keep away from spam filters.

It’s not clear how a lot of Stark’s community deal with area traces its origins to Russia, however massive chunks of it lately belonged to a number of the oldest entities on the Russian Web (a.okay.a. “Runet”).

For instance, many Stark deal with ranges had been most lately assigned to a Russian authorities entity whose full title is the “Federal State Autonomous Academic Institution of Further Skilled Training Heart of Realization of State Academic Coverage and Informational Applied sciences.”

A evaluation of Internet address ranges adjacent to this entity reveals an extended record of Russian authorities organizations which are a part of the Federal Guard Service of the Russian Federation. Wikipedia says the Federal Guard Service is a Russian federal authorities company involved with duties associated to safety of a number of high-ranking state officers, together with the President of Russia, in addition to sure federal properties. The company traces its origins to the USSR’s Ninth Directorate of the KGB, and later the presidential safety service.

Stark lately introduced the deal with vary from April 27 to Could 1, and this vary was beforehand assigned to an historical ISP in St. Petersburg, RU referred to as the Pc Applied sciences Institute Ltd.

In keeping with a submit on the Russian language webmaster discussion board searchengines[.]ru, the area for Pc Applied sciences Institute — ctinet[.]ruis the seventh-oldest area in the whole historical past of the Runet.

Curiously, Stark additionally lists massive tracts of Web addresses (near 48,000 in whole) assigned to a small ISP in Kharkiv, Ukraine referred to as NetAssist. Reached by way of e-mail, the CEO of NetAssist Max Tulyev confirmed his firm supplies plenty of providers to PQ Internet hosting.

“We colocate their gear in Warsaw, Madrid, Sofia and Thessaloniki, present them IP transit and IPv4 addresses,” Tulyev stated. “For his or her measurement, we obtain comparatively low variety of complains to their networks. I by no means seen something about their pro-Russian exercise or help of Russian hackers. It is rather fascinating for me to see proofs of your accusations.” mapped the whole infrastructure of Proxyline, and located a couple of million proxies throughout a number of suppliers, however by far the most important focus was at Stark Industries Options. The total record of Proxyline deal with ranges (.CSV) reveals two different ISPs seem repeatedly all through the record. One is Kharkiv, Ukraine primarily based ITL LLC, also referred to as Info Expertise Laboratories Group, and Built-in Applied sciences Laboratory.

The second is a associated internet hosting firm in Miami, referred to as Inexperienced Floid LLC. Inexperienced Floid featured in a 2017 scoop by CNN, which profiled the corporate’s proprietor and quizzed him about Russian troll farms utilizing proxy networks on Inexperienced Floid and its guardian agency ITL to masks disinformation efforts tied to the Kremlin’s Internet Research Agency (IRA). On the time, the IRA was utilizing Fb and different social media networks to unfold movies exhibiting police brutality in opposition to African Individuals in an effort to encourage protests throughout the US.

Doug Madory, director of Web evaluation at Kentik, was capable of see at a excessive degree the highest sources and locations for visitors traversing Stark’s community.

“Based mostly on our mixture NetFlow, we see Iran as the highest vacation spot (35.1%) for visitors emanating from Stark (AS44477),” Madory stated. “Particularly, the highest vacation spot is MTN Irancell, whereas the highest supply is Fb. This information helps the speculation that AS44477 homes proxy providers as Fb is blocked in Iran.”

On April 30, the safety agency Malwarebytes explored an in depth malware operation that targets company Web customers with malicious advertisements. Among the many websites used as lures in that marketing campaign had been pretend Wall Road Journal and CNN web sites that informed guests they had been required to put in a WSJ or CNN-branded browser extension (malware). Malwarebytes discovered a website title central to that operation was hosted at Web addresses owned by Stark Industries.